Rules of Word Stress in English
Stress is defined as using more muscular energy while articulating the words. When a word or a syllable in word is produced louder, lengthier, with higher pitch or with more quality, it will be perceived as stressed. The prominence makes some syllables be perceived as stressed. Words including long vowels and diphthongs or ending with more than one consonant are stronger, heavier and stressed.
There are two very simple rules about word stress:
- One word has only one stress. One word cannot have two stresses. Two stresses cannot be one word.
- We can only stress vowels, not consonants.
Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It is better to try to “feel” the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.
a. Stress on first syllable
|Most 2-syllable nouns||PRESent, EXport, CHIna, TAble|
|Most 2-syllable adjectives||PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy|
b. Stress on last syllable
|Most 2-syllable verbs||to preSENT, to exPORT, to deCIDE, to beGIN|
Verbs of 2 syllables-ending with OW, EN, Y, EL, ER, LE, ISH: stress 1st syllable
ex: to open, to follow, to hurry, to struggle, to flatter, to finish…
c. Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)
|Words ending in -ic||GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic|
|Words ending in -sion and -tion||teleVIsion, reveLAtion|
d. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
|Words ending in -cy, -ty, -phy and -gy||deMOcracy, dependaBIlity, phoTOgraphy, geOLogy|
|Words ending in -al||CRItical, geoLOGical|
three or > three syllable words : stress 3rd syllable- counting backwards
ex: to celebrate, curriculum, to unify…
exception: to develop, imagine, banana
e. Compound words (words with two parts)
|For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part||BLACKbird, GREENhouse|
|For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part||bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned|
|For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part||to underSTAND, to overFLOW|
f. words have suffixes and prefixes
v Suffixes: suffixes usually have stress on the first suffix’s syllable. If the root has two syllables, there is a light stress on the first syllable’s stress.
‘-ain’ (referring verb): entertain / entə’tein/ ascertain/,æsə’tein/
‘-ee’: refugee /,refju:’dʒi:/ evacuee/,ivækju’i:/
‘-eer’:mountaineer /,maunti’niə/ volunteer /,vɔlən’tiə /
‘- ese’: Portugese /,pɔ:tju’gi:z/ journalese /,dʒə:nə’li:z/
‘-ette’: cigarette /,sigə’ret/ laundette /lɔ:n’dret /.
‘- esque’, ‘-ique’: unique/ju:’ni:k / picturesque /,pikt∫ə’resk/.
v The rest of suffixes don’t influence to the stress, the stress depend on the root
‘-able’: comfort /’kʌmfət/ comfortable/’kʌmfətəbl/
’-age’: anchor/’æηkə/ anchorage /’æηkəridʒ/
‘-al’ : refuse /ri’fju:z / refusal /ri’fju:zl /
‘-en’ : wide / / widen / /
‘-ful’ : wonder/ / wonderful/ /
‘-ing’: amaze / / amazing / /
‘-like’: bird / / birdlike/ /
“-less”: power / / powerless / /
‘-ly’ : hurried / / hurriedly/ /
‘-ment’ (noun): punishment
‘-ness’ : Yellow / / yellowness / /
‘-ous’: poisonous / /
‘-fy’, ‘-wise’, ‘-y’
v Suffixes fluent stress: stress on the end syllable of the root.
‘-eous’ -graphy’ -ial’ ic’ -ion’ -ious’ ity’ -ive’
v Suffixes: ‘-ance’, ‘-ant’ and -ary’, the stress is on the first or the second of the.
v The affixes which change the word stress are various, some examples are -ain(entertain), -ee(refugee,trainee), -ese(Portugese, Japanese), -ique(unique), -ette(cigarette,laundrette), -esque(picturesque), -ial(proverbial), -ic(climatic), -ion(perfection), -ive(reflexive), -cal (political), -ity(complexity), -aire(millionaire), -eer(mountaineer), -ian(Italian), -et(ballet),
v On the other hand, there are some other affixes which don’t effect the distribution of stress, they are -able, -age, -al, -ful, -en, -ish, -ish, -like, -less, -ment, -wise, -y, -hood, -ship, -ness, -ing, -our etc
- Prefix: prefixes usually don’t influence to stress.
f. other words
v Stress before CIV (consonant-I-vowel)
ex: Australia, religious, physician..
v stress before IC
ex: titanic, Panasonic, pacific….
exceptions: rhetoric, lunatic, catholic, arithmetic, politics, Arabic
v Stress on the following ending syllables: ADE, OO, OON, EE, EEN, EER, ESE, ISE, IZE, AIRE, SELF…
EX: millionaire, cocoon, engineer, themselves….
Phonation is as “the rules that describe possible sequences of sounds for forming English words.” These rules are:
1) All phonological words must contain at least one syllable, and hence must contain at least one vowel.
2) Sequences of repeated consonants are not possible.
3) The velar nasal /ng/ never occurs in the onset of a syllable.
4) The glottal fricative /h/ never occurs in the coda of a syllable.
5) The affricates /ts/ and /dz/, and the glottal fricative /h/ do not occur in complex onsets.
6) The first consonant in a two-consonant onset must be an obstruent.(p,t,k, d, f, g)
7) The second consonant in a two-consonant onset must not be a voiced obstruent.
8) If the first consonant of a two-consonant onset is not an /s/, the second consonant must be a liquid or a glide – the second consonant must be /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/
9) Every subsequence contained within a sequence of consonants must obey all the relevant phonotactic rules.
10) No glides in syllable codas.
11) The second consonant in a two-consonant coda cannot be /ng/, /d/, /r/, /3/.
12) If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, the first consonant in the coda must also be voiced.
13) When a non-alveolar nasal is in a coda together with a non-alveolar obstruent, they must have the same place of articulation, and obstruent must be a voiceless stop.
14) Two obstructions in a coda together must have the same voicing.
Affixes and roots
Adding affixes to existing words (the base or root) to form new words is common in academic English. Prefixes are added to the front of the base (like dislike), whereas suffixes are added to the end of the base (active activate). Prefixes usually do not change the class of the base word, but suffixes usually do change the class of the word.
The most common prefixes used to form new verbs in academic English are: re-, dis-, over-, un-, mis-, out-. The most common suffixes are: -ise, -en, -ate, -(i)fy. By far the most common affix in academic English is -ise.
e.g. prefix + verb verb
Prefix Meaning Examples
re- again or back restructure, revisit, reappear, rebuild, refinance
dis- reverses the meaning of the verb disappear, disallow, disarm, disconnect, discontinue
over- too much overbook, oversleep, overwork
un- reverses the meaning of the verb unbend, uncouple, unfasten
mis- badly or wrongly mislead, misinform, misidentify
out- more or better than others outperform, outbid
be- make or cause befriend, belittle
co- together co-exist, co-operate, co-own
de- do the opposite of devalue, deselect
fore- earlier, before foreclose, foresee
inter- between interact, intermix, interface
pre- before pre-expose, prejudge, pretest
sub- under/below subcontract, subdivide
trans- across, over transform, transcribe, transplant
under- not enough underfund, undersell, undervalue, underdevelop
e.g. Suffix used to form verbs with the meaning “cause to be”.
-ise stabilise, characterise, symbolise, visualise,
-ate differentiate, liquidate, pollinate, duplicate,
-fy classify, exemplify, simplify, justify
-en awaken, fasten, shorten, moisten
The most common prefixes used to form new nouns in academic English are: co- and sub-. The most common suffixes are: -tion, -ity, -er, -ness, -ism, -ment, -ant, -ship, -age, -ery. By far the most common noun affix in academic English is -tion.
e.g. prefix + noun noun
Prefix Meaning Examples
anti- against anticlimax, antidote, antithesis
auto- self autobiography, automobile
bi- two bilingualism, biculturalism, bi-metalism
co- joint co-founder, co-owner, co-descendant
counter- against counter-argument, counter-example, counter- proposal
dis- the converse of discomfort, dislike
ex- former ex-chairman, ex-hunter
hyper- extreme hyperinflation, hypersurface
in- the converse of inattention, incoherence, incompatibility
in- inside inpatient,
inter- between interaction, inter-change, interference
kilo- thousand kilobyte
mal- bad malfunction, maltreatment, malnutrition
mega- million megabyte
mis- wrong misconduct, misdeed, mismanagement
mini- small mini-publication, mini-theory
mono- one monosyllable, monograph, monogamy
neo- new neo-colonialism, neo-impressionism
out- separate outbuilding,
poly- many polysyllable
pseudo- false pseudo-expert
re- again re-organisation, re-assessment, re-examination
semi- half semicircle, semi-darkness
sub- below subset, subdivision
super- more than, above superset, superimposition, superpowers
sur- over and above surtax
tele- distant telecommunications,
tri- three tripartism
ultra- beyond ultrasound
under- below, too little underpayment, under-development, undergraduate
vice- deputy vice-president
e.g. Suffix added to a verb (V), noun (N) or adjective (A) noun
Suffix Meaning Examples
-tion alteration, demonstration
-sion action/instance of V-ing expansion, inclusion, admission
-er person who V-s
something used for V-ing advertiser, driver
-ment action/instance of V-ing development, punishment, unemployment
-ent person who V-s assistant, consultant
-age action/result of V breakage, wastage, package
-al action/result of V denial, proposal, refusal, dismissal
-ance action/result of V preference, dependence, interference
attendance, acceptance, endurance
-ery/-ry action/instance of V-ing
place of V-ing bribery, robbery, misery
Suffix Meaning Examples
-er person concerned with N astronomer, geographer
-ism doctrine of N Marxism, Maoism, Thatcherism
-ship state of being N friendship, citizenship, leadership
-age collection of N baggage, plumage
Suffix Meaning Examples
-ity state or quality of being A ability, similarity, responsibility, curiosity
-ness state or quality of being A darkness, preparedness, consciousness
-cy state or quality of being A urgency, efficiency, frequency
Many adjectives are formed from a base of a different class with a suffix (e.g. -less, -ous). Adjectives can also be formed from other adjectives, especially by the negative prefixes (un-, in- and non-).
The most common suffixes are -al, -ent, -ive, -ous, -ful, -less.
e.g. Suffix added to verbs or nouns adjective
-al central, political, national, optional, professional
-ent different, dependent, excellent
-ive attractive, effective, imaginative, repetitive
-ous continuous, dangerous, famous
-ful beautiful, peaceful, careful
-less endless, homeless, careless, thoughtless
-able drinkable, countable, avoidable,
e.g. negative + adjective adjective
un- unfortunate, uncomfortable, unjust
im-/in-/ir-/il- immature, impatient, improbable, inconvenient, irreplaceable, illegal
non- non-fiction, non-political, non-neutral
dis- disloyal, dissimilar, dishonest
e.g. base with both prefix and suffix
Adjectives: uncomfortable, unavoidable, unimaginative, inactive, semi-circular
Nouns: disappointment, misinformation, reformulation
Formal written English uses nouns more than verbs. For example, judgement rather than judge, development rather than develop, admiration rather than admire.
There appeared to be evidence of differential treatment of children.
This is reflected in our admiration for people who have made something of their lives, sometimes against great odds, and in our somewhat disappointed judgment of those who merely drift through life.
All airfields in the country would be nationalized, and the government would continue with the development of new aircraft as recommended by the Barbizon Committee.
Associated with nominalization is the occurrence of prepositional phrases, introduced by of:
Judgment of those, treatment of children, development of new aircraft
-tion is the most common suffix used in this way. For example: alteration, resignation.
However others are: -ity ability, similarity, complexity; -ness blindness, darkness, preparedness; -ment development, encouragement; -ship friendship; -age mileage; -ery robbery, bribery; -al arrival; -ance assistance, resemblance.
Verb and subject agreement
Subject (singular) –> Verb (singular)
Subject (plural) –> Verb (plural)
1. Subject 1 + and + Subject 2 –> Verb (plural) (if S1 and S2 are different)
Eg: The secretary and the treasurer were present.
Subject 1 + and + Subject 2 –> Verb (singular) (if S1 and S2 refer one thing or one person)
Eg : The singer and doctor is coming
2. Each / either……………………..each/ either
Many a + Noun (singular) + and + many a + Noun (singular) –> Verb (singular)
Eg: Each boy and each girl has a seat.
Many a teacher and many a student has attended the lecture.
Nobody / Somebody / Everybody / Everything –>Verb (singular)
3. Subject 1 + of + Subject 2 + Verb –> Verb follows Subject 1
Eg: The study of languages requires time.
4. S1 + with, along with, together with, in addition to, as well as, no less than +S2 + verb –> verb follows S1
E.g The president, together with his advisors, is coming.
They, no less than Tom, were eager to start.
The manager, as well as his assistant, has arrived.
5. Either/ Neither/ Not only + Subject 1 + or/ nor/ but also + Subject 2 + Verb
—> Verb follows Subject 2
Eg : Either you or I am wrong.
Neither he nor his friends are able to come.
6. Plural Noun of Time, measure, money, distance —-> Verb (singular)
Eg : Twenty dollars is too much to pay for this book.
7. All —– referring to things –> Verb (singular)
All —– referring to people —> Verb (plural)
Eg : All is calm.
All are Vietnamese.
8. None / The majority of/ Fractions + of + Noun + Verb –> Verb depend on the followed noun
Eg : Half of the money is stolen.
Half of the students are English.
None of the money is mine.
The majority of students speak English.
9. Nouns plural in form but singular in meaning –> Verb (singular)
( News, mumps, sickets, measles, mathematics, physics, phonetics, linguistics, politics, athletics…)
Eg: The news is goods.
Mathematics is an important subject.
10. Nouns always in singular –> Verb (singular)
( Furniture, equipment, machinery, traffic, information, knowledge, money, advice, progress, luggage, homework, housework, merchandise…)
Eg: There is much traffic during rush hours.
11. The name of a country, town, place –> Verb (singular)
Eg: “Gulliver’s Travels” is an amusing book.
The United States, The Philippines…
12. Nouns always in plural –> Verb (plural)
( Cattle, people, police, scissors, pliers, tongs, trousers, pants, shorts, jeans, glasses, goods, compasses…)
Eg: Cattle are grazing.
13. Adjectives used as nouns –> Verb (plural)
( The blind, the rich, the dump, the poor…)
Eg : The English are used to driving on the left.
14. Collective Noun –> Verb (singular) (if it refer in common)
Collective Noun –> Verb (plural) (if it refer individually )
(Collective noun : Family, commitee, team, crowd, public, congress, parliarment, class, army.)
Eg : His family is rich.
His family are having dinner.
15. Relative Pronoun (who, whom, which, that…)–> Verb singular or plural depend on the words it refers to.
16. there + tobe + noun à verb (tobe) depends on the followed noun
Here + tobe + noun à verb (tobe) depends on the followed noun
e.g There are two reasons
There is no reason for this.
Here are two apples.
17. Indefinite pronouns + verbà verb (singular)
someone, somebody, each, either one, everyone, or anyone, everything, anything, no one, no thing..
18. some/ all (of) / half of, a part of, a percentage of, a majority of + noun à verb depends on the followed noun) (countable noun or uncountable noun
e.g Some of the beads are missing.
Some of the water is gone.
19. other cases
A number of + v plural
The number of +v singular
More than one + singular noun a verb (singular)
several, few, both, many + V plural
In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun. When you use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type.
There are rules, so you should use the following order:
1. Determiner or article
a/ determiner 1: all of, both off, neither of, none of…
b/ determiner 2: this, that, these, those, my, mine, your, yours, him, his, her, hers, they, their, Sam’s ;
or Articles – a, an, the.
2. Ordinal number: first, second, third, fourth…
3. Cardinal number: one, two, three, four…
4. Intensifier: very, quite, rather, somewhat,
5. Opinion adjective: polite, fun, cute, difficult, hard-working
6. Size, including adjectives, comparatives and superlatives
- height; e.g. tall, short, high, low; taller, tallest
- width; e.g. wide, narrow, thin, slim; wider, widest
- length; e.g. long, short; longer, longest
- volume; e.g. fat, huge; fatter, fattest
7. Shape: circular, oval, triangular, square, 5-sided, hexagonal, irregular
8. Age: new, young, adolescent, teenage, middle-aged, old, ancient
9. Colour: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, white, grey, black, black and white, light blue, dark red, pale blue, reddish brown, off-white, bright green, warm yellow.
10. Nationality: Hong Kong, Chinese, English, American, Canadian, Japanese
11. Religion: Buddhist, Christian, Moslem, pagan, atheist
12.Material: wood, plastic, metal, ceramic, paper, silk
13. purpose: usually with past participle (V3/ed) and present participle (Ving).
14.Noun used as an adjective: campus (as in ‘campus activities’)
15.The noun that the adjectives are describing.
ADVANCED PASSIVE VOICE
I/ passive sentence with report verbs: think, believe, assume, rumour, say, know, hypothesize…
S1 + V1 Know + that + S2 + V2
It is/ was + V1 Hypothesized + that + S2 + V2
Thought TO- INF (if V1 and V 2 are the same tense)
S2 + tobe + V1 Hypothesized +
Rumored TO HAVE + V3/ed(if V2 takes place before V1)
e.g. a. People rumour that he is married with a rich woman whom he doesn’t love.
It is rumoured that he is married with a rich woman whom he doesn’t love.
He is rumoured that to be married with a rich woman whom he doesn’t love.
b. They believed that she had made too many mistakes before running away.
It is / was believed that she had made too many mistakes before running away.
She was believed to have made too many mistakes before running away.
II/ passive sentence with the verbs “continue” and “ begin”
S + begin/ continue + to INF + Object
S’ + begin/ continue + to be + V3/ed + (by o)
e.g. Jim begins to repair the bicycle.
The bicycle begins to be repaired by Jim
We often use ‘it’ in sentence referring to time, the weather, temperature or distance. When used in this way, ‘it’ is sometimes called an empty subject because it carries no real information. It is present because every English sentence has to contain a subject (and a verb)
e.g. It’s 3 o’clock. It’s Thursday.
It’s hot. It’s raining.
It’s 5 km from here to the university.
It’s high tide at 11.44.
It’s noisy in here.
It’s awful, isn’t it?
It’s 3 years since we last met.
It says here there was a big fire in Tokyo.
It takes 20 minutes to get to work.
We do not usually put new information at the beginning of a sentence therefore we use “there be”. There in this case is an empty subject.
e.g. A man is at the door. There is a man at the door.
Books were on the desk. There were books on the desk.
An accident has happened. There has been an accident.
A short break will now happen. There will now be a short break.
Is a bank near here? Is there a bank near here?
A lot of work is to be done. There is a lot of work to do.
We were six there. There were six of us there
Sometimes sentences beginning with ‘it’ continue with an infinitive, a gerund or a noun clause. It is possible to begin such sentences with an infinitive or gerund, but we generally prefer ‘it’. The true subject is the infinitive, gerund or noun clause
Eg: It’s pleasant to lie in the sun.
It’s pleasant lying in the sun.
It’s a shame that Tom isn’t here.
It doesn’t matter when we arrive.
REPORTED SPEECH WITH TO-INFINITIVE AND GERUND
The most important basic aspects of reported speech that you have to remember are: changes in verb tenses, changes in personal pronouns and possessive adjectives, changes in the adverb
When changing from direct speech into reported speech we often use basic verbs like tell (told), ask (asked), say (said).
However, if you only use these verbs, the reported sentences will be very boring and repetitive. Especially, when you report a long story or an interview.
There are a lot of other verbs you can use to describe or summarize what people say without repeating the same thing over and over again. There is the list of those verbs:
Accuse (to accuse s.o of doing s.th)
admit (to admit doing s.th/ to admit that… )
advise (to advise s.o to do s.th)
agree (to agree that… )
announce (to announce that…)
apologise (to apologise (to s.o) for doing s.th)
ask (o ask someone to do something)
blame (to blame s.o for doing s.th)
complain (to complain about s.th)
congratulate (to congratulate s.o on doing s.th)
deny (to deny doing s.th/to deny that…)
explain (to explain why…/to explain that…)
forget (to forget to do s.th)
invite (to invite s.o to do s.th)
offer (to offer to do s.th for s.o)
promise (to promise to do s.th)
refuse (to refuse to do s.th)
remind (to remind s.o to do s.th)
suggest (to suggest that / to suggest doing s.th)
threaten (to threaten to do s.th)
warn (to warn s.o about s.th/ to warn s.o to do s.th)
thank (to thank s.o for doing s.th)
“It was you who ate my chocolate, Elvira, wasn’t it?”
He accused Elvira of eating his chocolate.
“It’s very hot in here. Would you mind opening the window?”
She asked him to open the window.
“We lost the match because you didn’t save that penalty.”
He blamed the goalkeeper for losing the match.
“Those bags must be heavy, John. Shall I take one?”
She offered to carry a bag for him.
“It most certainly wasn’t me that left the front door open.”
He denied leaving the front door open.
He denied that he had left the front door open.
GERUND AND PARTICIPLE
I/ A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. There are two kinds of participle
- Present participle: Ving e.g. they have been working in my company.
- Past participle: V3/ e.g. she is awarded a prime prize.
In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase is often placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.
Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step.
Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step
Punctuation: When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.
If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep.
The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt.
II/ A gerund, without exception, ends in ing. Gerunds are easy to identify.
e.g. jogging is my favorite sport.
-The problem is that all present participles also end in ing. What is the difference?
Present participles, on the other hand, function as adjectives that describe nouns
The crying baby drew a long breath and sucked in a spider crouching in the corner of the crib.
- A gerund is used:
As the subject of the sentence. Waiting for a bus can take a long time.
As the object of a verb. “Will you stop crying?”
Do you enjoy watching TV now?
As a verbal noun, as a verb doing the work of a noun. Her scolding frightened her children.
After some verbs/ phrase (be worth/ be busy): she has her car fixing.
The gate needs repainting.
He is busy cooking for dinner.
with a preposition. we are tired after walking for two hours.
after a phrasal verb. If we carry on working, we can complete it today.
- A present participle is used:
Immediately after a subject to which it refers (reducing clause)
People driving in the rain have to drive carefully.
After the verb “go + ving” He went fishing with his friends.
After sensual verbs. It tells us what a person or thing is doing.
She heard them talking about her.
I saw a rock rolling down the hill.
as an adjective. That twinkling star is much brighter than the rest.
to show that a person is doing two things at the same time. He is sitting outside the house, watching people pass by.
to form the continuous tense. He is washing his car.
when one action is followed by another. (reducing adverb clause)
Walking on the beach, he threw a ball to his friend.
A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns in English are formed by nouns modified by other nouns or adjectives.
Compound nouns can also be formed using the following combinations of words:
- Noun + Noun: toothpaste, bedroom, water tank, motorcycle, policeman, boyfriend, post office, fruit juice
- Noun + Verb: haircut, rainfall, car park
- Noun + Preposition: hanger-on, passer-by, full moon
- Adjective + Noun: bluebird, greenhouse, software, redhead
- Gerund + Noun: swimming pool, washing machine, driving license, dining room
- Verb + Preposition: look-out, take-off, drawback, breakdown, drive-in, drop out, feedback, hangover, hold-up, make-up, set-back, stand-in, take-away, check-in
- Adjective + Gerund: dry-cleaning, public speaking, energy- saving.
- Preposition + Verb: input, output, overthrow, upturn, outbreak, outcome, outlay, outlet, inlet
- Preposition + Noun: underground, onlooker
The Derived Nouns: are form by adding suffixes to the root word.
Adj + ‘ness’ ==> goodness, kindness, happiness…
Adj + ‘dom’ ==> freedom, wisdom.
Adj + ‘ty’ ==> certainty, cruelty.
Adj + ‘ism’ ==> socialism, optimism.
Adj + ‘ist’ ==> socialist, imperialist.
N + ‘hood’ ==> boyhood, childhood.
N + ‘ship’ ==> friendship, relationship.
V + ‘tion’ (ation, sion) ==> organization, imagination.
V + ‘ment’ ==> development, movement.
V + ‘ing’ ==> reading, speaking.
V + ‘er’ (or, ar) ==> reader, visitor, beggar.
N + ‘er’ ==> footballer, volleyballer.
Clause – A clause is a group of words, which contain a subject and a verb. It is also a sentence, if the clause is a complete thought.
There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent
I/ An independent clause, along with having a subject and predicate, expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. When they are part of longer sentences, they are referred to as independent (or main) clauses.(and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet)can stand alone as a complete sentence. Two or more independent clauses can be joined by using coordinating conjunctions or by using semicolons. The most important thing to remember is that an independent clause
II/ A dependent clause/ subordinate clause has a subject and predicate, but unlike an independent clause, it cannot stand by itself. It depends on something else to express a complete thought, which is why it is also called a dependent clause. Some subordinate clauses are introduced by relative pronouns (who, whom, that, which, what, whose) and some by subordinating conjunctions (although, because, if, unless, when, etc.). Subordinate clauses function in sentences as adjectives, nouns, and adverbs.
There are three basic types of dependent clauses: adjective clauses, adverb clauses, and noun clauses. (Adjective clauses are also called relative clauses.)
1/ A noun clause is an entire clause which takes the place of. Like a noun, a noun clause acts as the subject or object of a verb or the object of a preposition, answering the questions “who(m)?” or “what?”.
Noun Clause – A noun clause may function in place of a noun. The clause is often begun with who, whom, whoever, whomever, whose, which, what, whatever, or that.
e.g. What Billy did shocked his friends. (a subject of a verb)
Billy’s friends didn’t know that he couldn’t swim. (an object of a verb)
Billy’s mistake was that he refused to take lessons. (a subject complement)
Mary is not responsible for what Billy did. (Object of a preposition)
Everybody is sad that Billy drowned. (Adjective complement)
Note: A noun clause but not a noun can be an adjective complement
The subordinators in noun clauses are called noun clause markers. Here is a list of the noun clause markers:
- if, whether
- Wh-words: how, what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why
- Wh-ever words: however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever, whomever
e.g. I don’t know whether she will come to the party.
I don’t know if she will come to the party.
She doesn’t remember whichever she studied.
Whoever broke the vase will have to pay for it
We can use the word ‘that’ to introduce a fact. But, we can also omit the word ‘that’ when used for this purpose. See the examples below. When a noun clause begins with ‘that’, we can omit it so the crossed ‘that‘ in the table below is optional to use.
e.g. We know that unemployment is rising these days.
We know that Barack Obama is the first black man to be US President.
2/ An adjective clause takes the place of an adjective. Like an adjective, an adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun, answering questions like “which?” or “what kind of?”
Because an adjective tells something about the noun, an adjective clause does the same. An adjective clause can begin with a close marker, words like who, whom, whose, which, that, or when or where.
These are the most important relative pronouns: who, whom, that, which
WHO replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the subject of a verb. In informal writing (but not in academic writing), it can be used as the object of a verb.
WHOM replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the object of a verb or preposition. It cannot be the subject of a verb.
WHICH replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It can be the subject of a verb. It can also be the object of a verb or preposition.
THAT replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people, animals or things. It can be the subject of a verb. It can also be the object of a verb or preposition (but that cannot follow a preposition; whom, which, and whose are the only relative pronouns that can follow a preposition).
The following words can also be used as relative pronouns: whose, when, where.
WHOSE replaces possessive forms of nouns and. It can refer to people, animals or things. It can be part of a subject or part of an object of a verb or preposition, but it cannot be a complete subject or object. Whose cannot be omitted, but when and where are can.
e.g. The man whose wallet I found is happy.
I will never forget the day when I graduated. = I will never forget the day that I graduated.
The building where he works is new. = The building that he works in is new.
Adjective clauses can be restrictive or nonrestrictive.
a/ . A restrictive adjective clause/ defining relative clause contains information that is necessary to identify the noun it modifies. If a restrictive adjective clause is removed from a sentence, the meaning of the main clause changes. A restrictive adjective clause is not separated from the main clause by a comma or commas. Most adjective clauses are restrictive
e.g. People who can’t swim should not jump into the ocean.
b/ . A nonrestrictive adjective clause/ non- defining relative clause gives additional information about the noun it modifies but is not necessary to identify that noun. If a nonrestrictive adjective clause is removed from a sentence, the meaning of the main clause does not change. A nonrestrictive adjective clause is separated from the main clause by a comma or commas. The relative pronoun that cannot be used in nonrestrictive adjective clauses. The relative pronoun cannot be omitted from a nonrestrictive clause.
e.g. Billy, who couldn’t swim, should not have jumped into the ocean.
3/ An adverb clause takes the place of an adverb. An adverb clause answers questions such as “when?”, “where?”, “why?”, “with what goal/result?”, and “under what conditions?”.
An adverb clause modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb. They also answer questions like when, where, why and with what intention
- cause -The adverb clause answers the question “why?”.
e.g. Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle because the uncle had murdered Hamlet’s father.
- effect The adverb clause answers the question “with what goal/result?”.
e.g. Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle so that his father’s murder would be avenged.
- time The adverb clause answers the question “when?”. Note the change in word order an adverb clause can often appear either before or after the main part of the sentence.
e.g. After Hamlet’s uncle Claudius married Hamlet’s mother, Hamlet wanted to kill him.
- place The adverb clause answers the question “where?”.
e.g. Where the whole Danish court was assembled, Hamlet ordered a play in an attempt to prove his uncle’s guilt.
- condition The adverb clause answers the question “under what conditions?”
e.g. If the British co-operate, the Europeans may achieve monetary union.
The subordinators in adverb clauses are called subordinating conjunctions. They cannot be omitted. They cannot be subjects. Here are some of the subordinating conjunctions:
- Time: after, before, when, while, as, by the time, whenever, since, until, as soon as, once, as long as
- Cause and effect: because, since, now that, as, as long as, as much as, so (that), in order that
- Contrast: although, even though, though, whereas, while
- Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing (that), provided (that), in case, in the event (that)
e.g. After he took lessons, George could swim well.
George could swim well after he took lessons.
Because he couldn’t swim, Billy drowned.
Billy drowned because he couldn’t swim.
Although he isn’t interested in food, Fred works as a cook.
Fred works as a cook although he isn’t interested in food.
If you want to write well, you must practice.
You must practice if you want to write well.
We only can reduce adjective clause and adverb clause, not for noun clause.
I/ Adjective clauses can often be reduced to phrases. The relative pronoun (RP) must be the subject of the verb in the adjective clause. Adjective clauses can be reduced to phrases in two different ways depending on the verb in the adjective clause.
* RP + BE + V3/ed or Ving = V3/ed or Ving
e.g. People who are living in glass houses should not throw stones. (clause)
People living in glass houses should not throw stones. (phrase)
Mary applied for a job that was advertised in the paper. (clause)
Mary applied for a job advertised in the paper. (phrase)
* RP + OTHER VERB (not BE) = OTHER VERB + ing
e.g. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.(clause)
People living in glass houses should not throw stones. (phrase)
Students who sit in the front row usually participate more. (clause)
Students sitting in the front row usually participate more. (phrase)
II/ An Adverb Clause can be reduced only when the subject of the Adverb Clause and the subject of the Main Clause are the same
1/ Reducing Adverbial Clauses of Reason
We omit the subjects, the conjunctions and change the verb
e.g. Since she felt sick, she went to bed early.
Feeling sick, she went to bed early.
I didn’t know his address, so I couldn’t contact him.
Not knowing his address, I couldn’t contact him.
Negative , ( one action happens before another action ) :
e.g I had not understand what he said, so I asked him to repeat the directions.
Not having understood what he said , I asked him to repeat the directions.
2/ Reducing Adverbial Clauses of Time
Omit the subject and change the verb.
e.g. After I signed the report , I gave it to the director.
After signing the report, I gave it to the director.
While I was watching TV, I fell asleep.
While watching TV, I fell asleep.
A complete sentence
A complete sentence is not merely a group of words with a capital letter at the beginning and a period or question mark at the end. A complete sentence has three components:
- a subject (the actor in the sentence)
- a predicate (the verb or action)
- a complete thought (it can stand alone and make sense—it’s independent).
The principal elements of a sentence are:
- Subject (S)
- Verb (V)
- Object (O) (direct object, indirect object)
- Complement (C)
- Adjunct (A)
–The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about. A sentence may have a compound subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun.
–The predicate tells something about the subject. The predicate must contain a verb, and the verb requires, permits, or precludes other sentence elements to complete the predicate. These elements are: objects (direct, indirect, and prepositional). A compound predicate includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject.
Some examples: (the underlined words are predicates; the bold words are explained in the brackets)
She dances. (verb only predicate)
John reads the book. (Direct object)
John’s mother, Felicity, gave me a present. (indirect object without a preposition)
She listened to the radio. (prepositional object)
They elected him president. (predicative /object complement)
She met him in the park. (adverbial)
She is in the park. (obligatory adverbial / adverbial complement)
+The predicate Nominal is a noun phrase that functions as the main predicate of a sentence; a predicate nominative follows a linking verb and tells us what the subject is. The subject and predicate nominal must be connected by a linking verb, also called a copula.
e.g. George III is the king of England
Dr. Couch worthy is acting president of the university.
She used to be the tallest girl on the team
+The Predicate Adjective is an adjective that functions as a predicate, a predicate adjective follows a linking verb and tells us something about the subject. The subject and predicate adjective must be connected by a linking verb, also called copula.
e.g. Jessica is attractive
Ramonita is beautiful.
His behavior has been outrageous.
That garbage on the street smells bad
–The verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. In formal terms, we refer to the verb as the PREDICATOR, because its function is to predicate or state something about the subject
+ The direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb or shows the result of the action. It answers the question “What?” or “Whom?” after an action verb. An action verb with a direct object is called a transitive verb
e.g. Zippy accidentally kicked Maurice in the shin.
He kicked the dog. The dog bit him
+ The indirect object answers the question “To whom?” or “For whom?” who ‘benefits’ from the action expressed in the verb.
e.g. I bought him a cup of tea.
I bought a cup of tea to him.
She gave him some money.
–The complement is any word or phrase that completes the sense of a subject, an object, or a verb. As you will see, the terminology describing predicates and complements can overlap and be a bit confusing.
+The subject complement follows a linking verb; it is normally an adjective or a noun that renames or defines in some way the subject.
e.g. He is a student.
These hats are very beautiful.
The adjective complements are also called predicate adjectives; noun complements are also called predicate nouns or predicate nominatives.
+The object complement follows and modifies or refers to a direct object. It can be a noun or adjective or any word acting as a noun or adjective.
e.g. The clown got the children too excited. (The participle “excited” complements the object “children.”)
I find this job very suitable.
+The verb complement is a direct or indirect object of a verb
e.g. Granny left Raoul all her money. (Both “money” [the direct object] and “Raoul” [the indirect object] are said to be the verb complements of this sentence.)
-The adjunct may convey information about how, when, or where something happened:
e.g. He ate his meal quickly (how)
David gave blood last week (when)
Susan went to school in New York (where)
The most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only one clause. A simple sentence can be as short as one word: e.g. Run!
Usually, however, the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both the subject and the predicate may have modifiers. Let see these examples, all of the following are simple sentences, because each contains only one clause:
The ice melts quickly.
The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
As you can see, a simple sentence can be quite long — it is a mistake to think that you can tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by its length.
The most natural sentence structure is the simple sentence: it is the first kind which children learn to speak, and it remains by far the most common sentence in the spoken language of people of all ages. In written work, simple sentences can be very effective for grabbing a reader’s attention or for summing up an argument, but you have to use them with care: too many simple sentences can make your writing seem childish.
When you do use simple sentences, you should add transitional phrases to connect them to the surrounding sentences.
A fragment is a phrase or an incomplete sentence. Some fragments are incomplete because they lack either a subject or a verb, or both. They also can be dependent clauses—they have a subject and a verb, so they look like complete sentences, but they don’t express a complete thought. They’re called “dependent” because they can’t stand on their own.
Let see some example:
1/ Because hungry sharks flashed on the surface of the waves.
2/ Spilling the hot spaghetti sauce all over his new suede shoes.
3/ To buy nice jewelry for his greedy girlfriend Gloria.
4/ For example, a mailbox stuffed with bills, two dozen messages on the answering machine, an uppity cat, and a dead lawn.
5/ And peeked into the room, risking the wrath of Mrs. Mousy, who has no patience for students walking into class late.
Read the revisions below. You will see that adding a main clause completes the thought.
1/ Because hungry sharks flashed on the surface of the waves, Mike and Sarah decided to return their surfboards to the car.
2/ Leonardo grabbed the pot handle with his bare hands, spilling the hot spaghetti sauce all over his new suede shoes.
3/ Danny sold half of his comic book collection to buy nice jewelry for his greedy girlfriend Gloria.
4/ For example, April found a mailbox stuffed with bills, two dozen messages on the answering machine, an uppity cat, and a dead lawn.
5/ Sherry turned the doorknob and peeked into the room, risking the wrath of Mrs. Mauzy, who has no patience for students walking into class late.
TYPES OF SENTENCE
I/ SIMPLE SENTENCES have only one independent clause.
It is a sentence that conveys only one main idea. A simple sentence can have more that one subject (compound subject), and more than one verb (compound verb). A simple sentence is the most effective way to deliver one main point.
e.g. Some students like to study in the mornings.
Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
Notice: NO commas separate compound elements (subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.
II/ COMPOUND SENTENCES contain two or more independent clauses.
Compound sentences use coordinating conjunction, conjunctive adverb or semicolon to connect two ideas of equal importance.
The coordinating conjunctions are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Except for very short sentences, coordinating conjunctions are always preceded by a comma.
e.g. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.
Tom reads novels; however, Jack reads comics.
Tom reads novels; his friend reads comics.
Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping.
Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.
(Note how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses.)
- Independent clause, coordinating conjunction independent clause.
- Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.
- Independent clause; independent clause.
If you only use the comma to split two independent sentences without any coordinating conjunction, they are called “run-on sentence” or “fused sentences” not compound sentence.
1. Use a semicolon:
The bus was very crowded; I had to stand all the way.
2. Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet).
The bus was very crowded, so I had to stand all the way.
3. Use a semicolon in front of a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, nevertheless, etc.) followed by a comma:
The bus was very crowded; therefore, I had to stand all the way.
III/ COMPLEX SENTENCES have one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
A complex sentence always has a subordinating conjunctions (because, since, after, although, or when) or a relative pronoun (that, who, or which).
When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle, no comma is required. It is wrong if a comma is placed before the subordinators.
- Subordinator + Subject + Verb, Subject + Verb. (comma)
- Subject + Verb Subordinator] + Subject Verb. (no comma)
e.g. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.
The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
- Subordinator Dependent clause, independent clause
- Independent clause subordinator dependent clause
- Independent, non-defining relative clause, clause.
- Independent defining relative clause clause.
III/ COMPOUND-COMPLEX sentences have two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
e.g. Because she did not hear the alarm, Mary was late, and the bus had already left.
The package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before I could check the contents.
Sir John A. Macdonald had a serious drinking problem; when sober, however, he could be a formidable foe in the House of Common.
There are two special types of compound sentences which you might have to note. First, rather than joining two simple sentences together, a coordinating conjunction sometimes joins two complex sentences, or one simple sentence and one complex sentence. In this case, the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence
e.g. While Tom reads novels, Jack reads comics, but Sam reads only magazines.
DC IC IC
Tom reads novels, but Jack reads comics because books are too difficult.
IC IC DC
Jack, who reads comics, rarely reads novels; however, Tom enjoys novels.
People who read comics rarely read novels; they often find books difficult.
- Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences.
- A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two.
You should achieve balance and variety in the kinds of sentences that you write in your papers with the skill to write good simple, compound, complex sentence and compound- complex sentences, you will have the flexibility to convey your ideas precisely and entertain with sentence variety at the same time.
MOOD OF SENTENCE
Mood: is the grammatical expression of the speaker’s purported attitude toward what he or she is saying.
I/ Indicative / declarative – A declarative sentence makes a statement. A indicative sentence ends with a period.
e.g. The house will be built on a hill.
II/ Interrogative – An interrogative sentence asks a question. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.
e.g. How did you find the card?
III/ Exclamatory – An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark.
e.g. The monster is attacking!
IV/ Imperative – An imperative sentence gives a command.
e.g. Cheryl, try the other door.
Look in the closet. (You, look in the closet.)
% per cent
… three periods
( left bracket
) right bracket
A conjunction is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions,
I/ COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another: (words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses)
And, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet—these are the seven coordinating conjunctions. To remember all seven, you might want to learn one of these acronyms: FANBOYS
and• joins two propositions (ideas)
but • joins two contrastive propositions (ideas)
or • joins two alternative propositions (ideas)
so • first idea (the cause) results in second idea (the effect)
for • used to mean seeing that, since, or because
nor • used in negative expressions
yet • used to mean though, still, and nevertheless
II/ SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Subordinating conjunctions, the largest class of conjunctions, connect subordinate clauses to a main clause. These conjunctions are adverbs used as conjunctions
|although, even though,
because, since, so that,
when, while, before, after, whenever,
if, unless, whether?[or not]
as, as [adjective] as,
|(to show slight contrast)
(to give reasons)
(to indicate time relationships)
(to indicate place)
(to indicate conditions)
(to give comparisons)
(to show major contrast)
III/ CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
These conjunctions join independent clauses together
A list of common conjunctive adverbs.
as a result
on the contrary
IV/ CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.
- both . . . and
- not only . . . but also
- not . . . but
- either . . . or neither . . . nor
- whether . . . or
- as . . . as
bureau bureaux /bureaus
Useful Transitions and Transitional Phrases
|Conjunctions||and, but, or, for, nor, neither, so, yet|
|Introduction to a Topic||as for, concerning, with regard to, with respect to, in terms of|
|To Summarize||in all, in a word, in brief, briefly, in other words, in short, in summary, that is, finally, generally, in conclusion, on the whole, therefore, to sum up, to conclude, and so, this shows, thus we see|
|To Compare||by comparison, here again, in the same way, in a similar manner, likewise, similarly, so too, as, also, equally, accordingly, moreover, as well, and|
|To Contrast||conversely, however, instead (of), in spite of that, anyhow, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, rather than, still, yet, nevertheless, in contrast, notwithstanding, in spite of this, although, but, despite, even though|
|To Show Cause and Effect||accordingly, as a consequence, as a result, consequently, for this reason, hence, it follows that, so/so that, then, therefore, thus, thereupon, Likewise|
|To Explain||actually, admittedly, because, certainly, for example, in fact, indeed, really of course, since, that is, for instance, namely, specifically, such as, to illustrate, in particular, in this manner, thus|
|To Show Conviction||after all, at least, at the same time, apparently, even so, evidently, certainly, conceivably, conclusively, doubtless, no doubt, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably, surely, undoubtedly|
|To Show Various Conditions||in this event, in these circumstances, this (that) being so, provided that, in spite of, none/nevertheless, at the same time, even if, if, unless, otherwise, although, even though, though, despite|
|To Add Information||add to this, again, also, besides, equally, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, once more, then too, too, yet again, yet another, and, as well, beyond that, even, next, similarly|
|To Show Chronological Order||after that, afterwards, later, shortly, subsequently, concurrently, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, now, simultaneously, when/while/was, first, second ,etc., formerly, earlier, previously, before that, then, already, at last, at length, by that time, finally, during, immediately, next, soon, still, in the interim, presently, at the same time, in the end, temporarily, thereafter|
|To Show Concession||admittedly, after all, all the same, at any rate, granted, however, in any case, in spite of, it is true that, nevertheless, obviously, of course, still, to be sure|
|Location||above, below, beyond, farther, further, here, hereby, opposite, there, to the left/right, under|
Arthritis, hiccups, polio, AIDS, laryngitis, smallpox, cancer, measles, tetanus, emphysema, mumps, typhoid, flu, muscular, dystrophy, tuberculosis.
arrive in / at
accuse smb of smt
arrest smb for smt
blame smb for smt
blame smt on smb
care for / about
compare with / to
concern about / with
charge smb with smt
charge smb for smt
convict smb of smt
convince smb of smt
cure smb of smt
decide on / against
dream of / about
demand smt from smb
derive smt from smt
discourage smb from smt
distinguish smb/smt from/between smb/smt
distract smb from smt
excuse smb for smt
exchange smt for smt
exclude smt from smt
expel smb from smt
explain smt to smb
forgive someone for something
get married to
get rid of
get tired of
hear of / about
hope of / for
help smb with smt
hinder smb/smt from smt
interfere with / in
involve smb/smt in smb/smt
lend smt to smb
get married to
praise smb for smt
present smb with smt
prevent smb from smt
provide smb with smt
provide smt for smb
punish smb for smb
quarrel about smt
quarrel with smb
react against / to
remind smb of smt
rob smb of smt
save smb from smt
sentence smb to smt
share smt with smb
subject smb to smt
suspect smb of smt
tell smb about smt
thank smb for smt
translate smt into smt
trust smb with smt
write to / about
warn smb about/against
The following is a list of verbs and prepositions which commonly appear together.
accuse (someone) of ([doing] something)
add (something) to (something else)
admire (someone) for ([doing] something)
agree on (topic)
agree with (someone)
apologize to (someone) for ([doing] something)
apply to (a place) for (something)
approve of (something)
argue with (someone) about (topic)
arrive at (a building, room, site, event)
arrive in (a city, country)
ask (someone) about (someone/topic)
ask (someone) for (something)
believe in (something)
belong to (someone)
blame (someone) for ([doing] something)
borrow (something) from (someone)
care about (someone/something/topic)
comment on (topic)
compare (something) to/with (something else)
complain to (someone) about (something)
concentrate on ([doing] something)
congratulate (someone) for/on ([doing] something)
consist of (some things)
consent to ([doing] something)
contribute to (something)
count on (someone) to (do something)
cover (something) with (something else)
decide on (topic)
depend on (someone) for (something)
discuss (something) with (someone)
distinguish (something) from (something else)
dream about/of (someone/something)
escape from (somewhere)
explain (topic) to (someone)
excuse (someone) for ([doing] something)
forgive (someone for ([doing] something)
get rid of (something)
graduate from (a place)
happen to (someone)
help (someone) with (something)
hide (something) from (someone)
introduce (someone) to (someone else)
invite (someone) to (an event)
keep (something) for (someone)
matter to (someone)
object to (something)
participate in (something)
pay (price) for (something)
pray for (someone/something)
prefer (something) to (something else)
prevent (someone) from ([doing] something)
prohibit (someone) from ([doing] something)
protect (someone) from (something)
provide (someone) with (something)
recover from (something)
rely (up)on (someone/something)
remind (someone) of (something)
rescue (someone) from (something)
respond to (someone/something)
save (someone) from (something)
search for (something)
separate (something) from (something else)
scold (someone) for ([doing] something)
smile at (someone) for ([doing] something)
speak to/with (someone) about (topic) /br>stare at (something/someone)
stop (someone) from ([doing] something)
subscribe to (something)
substitute (something) for (something else/someone)
subtract (something) from (something else)
succeed in ([doing] something)
suffer from (something)
take advantage of (someone/something/ situation)
take care of (something/someone)
talk to/with (someone) about (topic)
thank (someone) for ([doing] something)
travel to (somewhere)
vote for (someone)
vouch for (someone)
wait for (someone/something)
wish for (something)
work for (company/something/someone.